Puppies are at high risk for snake bite because they’re curious and try to play with them. Puppies that live in rural areas often encounter snakes in their outdoor exploration. When the dog is too curious -- or too hardheaded -- to leave a snake alone, she may be bitten. Nonpoisonous snake bites are painful and can cause infection, but venomous snake bites can kill a puppy within only an hour, unless you give first aid for snake bite.
Fatal snakebites are more common in dogs than in any other domestic animal. Poisonous snakes are found in all states except Maine, Alaska and Hawaii. Your puppy is most at risk for snakebite if she lives in Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina or Texas.
Signs of Snakebite
Thick fur helps protect the dog from body injuries, and bites most often occur on the face or neck when the dog tries to catch the snake. A non-poisonous snake bite will leave tiny horseshoe-shaped teeth marks. Clean the wound with soapy warm water, and see a veterinarian if you notice any swelling. An antibiotic is usually sufficient.
The severity of a venomous bite depends on the size of the puppy in relation to the snake, the number of bites, and how much venom is injected. Some kinds of venom affect the central nervous system and make the puppy appear drunk, have seizures or stop breathing.
There may be redness or bleeding and first signs usually include agitation, excessive panting and drooling, and weakness. Vomiting, diarrhea, collapse, seizures, shock, and sometimes paralysis (with coral snake bites), leading to coma and potentially death may follow. But the most common sign is a sudden and severe swelling at the bite location that typically hides the bite wounds. You might mistake the swelling to be caused by a spider bite or bug sting.
But the venom from pit vipers like copperheads discolors the flesh within minutes because it digests the flesh. Even if the bite isn’t life threatening, it needs immediate medical care because it can cause irreversible damage.
There are four poisonous snakes endemic to the United States: copperheads, cottonmouths (water moccasins), and rattlesnakes are pit vipers. Pit vipers have slit-eyed pupils like a cat (compared to round pupils in non-poisonous snakes), pits beneath their eyes, big arrow-shaped heads, rough scales, and a pair of fangs in the upper jaw.
- Rattlesnakes usually are brown or reddish with clear patterns on the back, and rattles on the end of the tail.
- Water moccasins hang out near streams or in swamps. They reach 4 to 6 feet in length, and are dark brown to black. The inside of the mouth is white, giving the snake its name.
- Copperhead has a red-brown coloring and an hourglass marking and distinctive copper colored head. They reach about 2 to 4 feet in length, and hangs out around leaf litter and woodpiles.
- The coral snake is recognized by its small black-nosed head, and vivid banded body colored red, yellow, white and black--red and yellow bands are always next to each other. Coral snakes can be distinguished from king snakes (same bands of color but in a different order) by remembering this rhyme: “Red next to yellow kills a fellow.”
First Aid for Snake Bite
If you suspect your dog has been bitten by a poisonous snake, get to the emergency clinic immediately. If you can do so safely, bring the snake for possible identification. Snake bites are diagnosed by identification of the snake, characteristics of the wound, and behavior of the pup. They are treated with antivenin given within 4 to 8 hours of the bite.
- The poison can cause shock, paralysis, or make the nostrils or windpipe swell shut. Remove the pup's collar or harness so that as her body swells the airways remain unrestricted. But be prepared to give your puppy rescue breathing.
- Keep her quiet as possible on the way to the vet by isolating her in a carrier. Any movement can speed up the poison’s spread through her blood circulation.
- Turn up the AC in the car to help slow down circulation. Or apply an ice pack directly to the wound—even a package of frozen vegetables will work.
- If you can see bite marks, rinse the wounds with water or a baby wipe to get the venom off her body. If you live in a snake-endemic region, invest in a vacuum pump for snake bites (included in snakebite kits) that have been shown to remove 30 percent of the venom when used promptly. Compare Prices: Snakebite Kits
Supervise your puppy. Clean away brush and confine the pup to a space that you’ve checked for hazards. It’s always easier to avoid and prevent tragedy than to deal with the aftermath.